Understanding the Sense of Hearing – Structure and Functions – Spot72.com
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Spot72.com – The sense of hearing, the sensory system in humans consists of several organs that have the function of feeling the situation around / their environment. In this organ or what we usually call the sensory organs, there are receptor cells that are very sensitive to stimulation.
The stimuli received by the receptor cells are then sent to the brain and translated into the brain which will then be processed into commands to actuators in the form of muscles and glands. In addition, these muscles or glands will act in accordance with orders given by the brain according to the type of stimulation received by the sensory system or also called receptors.
The types of receptors that depend on the stimuli received can be divided into 3 types, namely remote receptors, external receptors and endogenous receptors. Understanding the receiver of communication is a recipient who detects stimuli coming from a distance.
The second definition of a receptor or exogenous receptor is a receptor that detects stimuli from a wide range. Interoceptors are receptors that detect stimuli from within the body. In general, humans have five types of senses, so they are called five senses.
These senses include the eye as the sense of sight, the ear as the sense of hearing, the nose as the sense of smell, the tongue as the sense of taste, and the skin as the sense of touch. The following is an explanation of each of the senses in humans:
What is the Sense of Hearing?
Definition of Ears or The Sense of Hearing is an organ that is useful for hearing and an organ that can keep your balance.
The ear can perceive sound because the frequency of sound, which can be heard from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, is limited. Although humans have a sound limit of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, however, after hearing more than 20,000 Hz, significant damage can be achieved.
Each part of the ear can work together so that the ear can correctly perceive sound waves from the air. These are then converted into vibrations and send signals to the brain. The signal is then decoded.
If it was a broken or abnormal system, these people would be hard of hearing and unable to hear. Most of us know that hearing is only one organ. As an illustration, we will pursue in detail the full understanding of hearing in terms of structure, function.
Structure of the Sense of Hearing
In general, hearing is divided into three main parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear, each of which has specific functions for its own tasks.
a. Outer Ear
For the external ear or ear, the external canal or external auditory canal may be the eardrum or eardrum, which is confined to the inner ear.
- The auricle has a form of cartilage that has a characteristic shape to support its function, that is, it concentrates sound waves that enter the ear canal.
- The canal in the outer ear has a Sudorifera gland, a gland that produces serum, a waxy substance that can tighten. Ceramics prevent the outer ear that goes into the ear from getting too dirty and prevents insects from entering the ear due to an unpleasant odor.
- The tympanic membrane is the part of the ear where sound waves are generated.
b. Inner Ear
The inner ear consists of 2 parts, namely bones and membranes. This inner ear is called the labyrinth because it looks so confusing. Bone maze or Osea labyrinth.
The Osea Labyrinth is a cave that forms a protrusion of temples filled with perilymph. The membranous labyrinth is in the same section as the bony labyrinth. To the deeper and lined epithelial cells containing endolymph fluid.
c. Middle Ear
The middle ear is an air-filled cavity and can maintain air pressure in balance. This inner wall is covered with a cell wall. Its main function is to apply external sound to the inner ear.
There is a Eustachian tube in the middle ear that connects the ear to the oral cavity or pharynx. The Eustachian tube is used to balance air pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear.
The middle ear consists of three large or main hearing bones, which are:
- Malleus or hammer.
- Stapes or stirrups.
- Incus or anvil.
Some of these bones are connected to each other and to joints. Because of joints, bones can move. The 3 bones in this series are responsible for transmitting vibrations from the eardrum through the oval window of the ear.
How the Sense of Hearing Works
The work in hearing is started with sound waves entering the outer ear and then the eardrum. The eardrum is a sound wave that vibrates and travels to the cochlea.
The vibrations that have created the fluid in the cochlea so that the liquid stimulates the many hair receptors in the cochlea and the hair cells vibrate. Vibrations are transmitted to the brain in the form of impulses through sensory nerves, so that the brain can receive impulses and interpret them as sound.
Function of the Sense of Hearing
The ears are useful for converting sound waves into signals that can be understood and interpreted by the brain, which can also help maintain the position of the head.
Fluid in the ear can help balance the body so that the person can maintain proper posture and coordination. Next we describe the complete auditory function.
1. To Regulate Balance
There is a special structure in the ear organ that is useful for regulating and maintaining your body’s balance. Hearing is directly related to cranial nerve VIII, which is useful for maintaining a listening and balance.
2. To Listen
Hearing Function Hearing is usually unknown to many people, of course when you hear sound waves that penetrate the outer ear and then pass through the brain through the auditory process.
Thus the discussion this time, which we have conveyed in full and clear, namely regarding the Sense of Hearing. Hopefully this review can be useful and useful for all of you.
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